The Shuttle crew basically uses two methods for deploying satellites: triggering a spring system which propels the satellite into space and away from the Shuttle, or using the RMS for unberthing the satellite and placing it as far away as possible from the Shuttle, and releasing it “quietly” into space.
After the initial deployment, Mission Control takes over the control of the satellite and moves it through the entire deployment sequence (activating various systems, guiding it into the planned orbit, opening the solar panels, etc.)
The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) is a large rocket motor housed in the Payload bay of the shuttle. it is used to launch heavy payloads to very-high orbits (usually Geosynchronous orbit) or launching probes to interplanetary exploration.
The IUS is carried horizontally in the payload bay due to it's size and tilted up to 58 degrees for launch. When springs push the IUS away at a slow rate to a safe distance before the IUS engine ignites.
|L12 Panel for IUS|
The PAM is carried vertically in a housing in the payload bay and is rotated before being pushed out by a set of springs. The engine ignites when the shuttle has re-positioned to a safe distance.
|L12 Panel for PAM-D Deployment|
|PAM-D ready for deployment (STS-8)|
The ASE is used to launch the Syncom IV (LEASAT). It is carried horizontally in the payload and released out like frisbee - the “toss” induces a 0.8 RPM rotation that stabilizes the satellite before the engine fires and sends the payload to orbit.
|L12 Panel for ASE|
|LEASAT in payload bay (STS-32)|
The Micro satellites are not primary payload for the mission, they are “hitchhikers” and usually launched on the day before re-entry. The micro-sats are small and motor-less, they are carried inside canisters located in the payload bay and are ejected by springs to their final orbits.
|L12 panel for Micro-satellites|